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D-dimer Trends Predicts COVID-19 Patient’s Prognosis: A Retrospective Chart Review Study

The serum biomarker D-dimer trends can predict whether a COVID-19 patient's oxygen requirements will be worsening or improving compared to the day before.

Your survival chance increases if treated with a moderate dose of anticoagulation at an early stage of COVID-19 diagnosis.”
— Azad Kabir, MD MSPH

BILOXI, MISSISSIPPI, UNITED STATES, July 1, 2022 /EINPresswire.com/ -- It is our pleasure to announce that Dr. Azad Kabir, MD MSPH (Biostatistics) along with his research group Iyana Malik, Raeed Kabir, Reena Chen, Jebun Nahar, and Abul Hussam, found an inflammatory biomarker named D-dimer that can predict COVID-19 patient’s prognosis. The D-dimer is readily available to all healthcare providers both outpatient and inpatient in the US. In October 2021, Dr. Kabir published the article titled “Anticoagulation is the answer in treating noncritical COVID-19 patients’' in the journal "Open Medicine" [1]. The current study was also conducted using the same medical charts review of COVID-19 patients admitted at Jackson Hospital, Montgomery, Alabama, where Dr. Kabir works as a hospitalist under the department of Internal Medicine. The study found that daily serum biomarker D-dimer levels (increasing or decreasing trends) can predict whether a COVID-19 patient's oxygen requirements will be worsening or improving compared to the day before. “Measuring serum D-dimer daily makes COVID-19 a very predictable disease,” said Dr. Kabir who is serving as a COVID-19 hospitalist since the start of the pandemic. The current study, presented at the Bangladesh Medical Association of North America (BMANA, Marriott Marquis Hotel, New York) on July 3rd 2022, validates Dr. Kabir’s earlier publication and treatment recommendations.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different modalities of anticoagulation dose on patient mortality and relationship between daily D-dimer levels and oxygen requirements among patients with COVID-19. Three different modalities of anticoagulation doses were considered for the purpose of the study: low dose was defined as Enoxaparin 40 mg daily; moderate dose was defined as Enoxaparin 40mg subq twice a day; and high dose was defined as Enoxaparin 1mg/kg subQ twice a day. The multivariate linear analysis used the oxygen requirements (in L/min) as the outcome variable. The multivariate logistic regression model used patient survival status as the outcome variable. The independent variable used in the model were patient sex, age, race, BMI category, daily D-dimer categories, modalities of anticoagulation doses, bleeding episodes, and vaccination status.

The multivariate linear regression model predicting oxygen requirements showed D-Dimer and bleeding status were strongly significant with a p value of <0.01. For the patients who had a D-dimer value ≥ 2 µg/mL, the oxygenation requirement was 31 L higher than those with a D-dimer <2 µg/mL (p<0.01). The study concludes daily D-dimer trends can predict COVID-19 patient survival or daily oxygen requirements indicating D-dimer can be the miracle molecule for COVID-19 prognosis. Additionally, intermediate-dose anticoagulation was found to be the optimal dose to reduce patient mortality among patients with COVID-19 and anticoagulation dose can be adjusted based on D-dimer trends.

Dr. Azad Kabir, founder and CEO of Doctor Ai LLC, recommends all patients with symptoms of COVID-19 seek health care from a physician's office, hospital, or any healthcare facility as soon as symptoms of COVID-19 are noticed so that anticoagulation can be considered as a treatment option. It is important to remember that seeking hospital care in a delayed stage will decrease the chance of survival due to COVID-19. “A simple test like daily D-dimer trends can predict survival, daily oxygen requirements and your outcome can be improved if treated with a moderate dose of anticoagulation at an early stage of COVID-19 diagnosis,” said Dr. Kabir. The authors recommend that healthcare providers should assess the risk of bleeding and discuss the risk with patients and family members before starting anticoagulation for COVID-19 treatments.


Reference:
1. Kabir, Azad A.. "Anticoagulation is the answer in treating noncritical COVID-19 patients" Open Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, 2021, pp. 1486-1492. https://doi.org/10.1515/med-2021-0354 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494147/

2. Iyana Malik, RN; Raeed Kabir; Reena Chen; Jebun Nahar, PhD; Abul Hussam, PhD; Azad Kabir, MD MSPH*; D-dimer Trends Predicts COVID-19 Patient’s Prognosis: A Retrospective Chart Review Study. Selected for presentation at Bangladesh Medical Association of North America (Mariot Marquis, New York) on July 3rd, 2022.

Azad A Kabir
Doctor Ai LLC
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